Mutual aid as a factor of evolution: flocking, feeding, singing, nesting

Part of Fragility of flight exhibition
Taigh Chearsabhagh, North Uist
May-July 2013

As humans we often look to animals to understand ourselves, our place in the world and our relationships to one another. During the late 19th century, Peter Kropotkin’s studies of birds and other human and non-human animals led him to conclude that Darwinism and social Darwinism had underplayed the importance of cooperation and mutual aid as evolutionary factors for the survival and flourishing of species. Kropotkin suggested that cooperation rather than heedless struggle was a feature of the most intelligent and advanced species.


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